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У статті подано теоретичний аналіз механізмів громадянської непокори, розкрито при- чини та форми громадянської непокори владі в умовах різних типів політичного устрою дер- жави. Розглянуто правовий статус учасників акцій громадянської непокори, досліджено мож- ливі шляхи зниження напруги в суспільстві для забезпечення ефективного державного управ- ління.

Ключові слова: громадянська непокора, громадянський протест, державне управління, правовий статус, громадянське суспільство, толерантність.

В статье дается теоретический анализ механизмов гражданского неповиновения, раск- рываются причины и формы гражданского неповиновения власти в условиях разных типов политического устройства государства. Рассматривается правовой статус участников акций гражданского неповиновения, исследуются возможные пути снижения напряжения в обществе для обеспечения эффективного государственного управления.

Ключевые слова: гражданское неповиновение, гражданский протест, государственное управление, правовой статус, гражданское общество, толерантность

Problem setting. The phenomenon of color revolutions in recent years stirred up the interest in relation to civil disobedience as a form of political participation. The objective of this article is to examine the reasons for this fact, to determine the possible positive and negative consequences of this phenomenon, to explore the significance of the phenomenon of civil disobedience for the process of civil society evolvement in Ukraine and its place in the general concept of political culture.

Recent research and publications analysis. The range of scholarly works on the subject matter of the phenomenon of civil disobedience is quite limited in Ukraine. There are several works devoted to the study of adjacent issues, such as, for example, direct will expression, non-violence ideology, political tolerance, theory of justice, legitimacy of political power, civil rights and freedoms. As for foreign studies, the quantity and quality of scholarly works are much better. Obviously, this is due to the fact that abroad the phenomenon of civil disobedience is actively studied since the days of Henry Thoreau. Thus, it is worth mentioning the names of Hannah Arendt, Erich Fromm, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, John Rawls, Marek Nowicki, Michael Randle, Gene Sharp, D. Cohen, Andrew Arato, Ronald Dworkin, P. Denhoff, P. Virno, K. Schmidt, R. G. Apresyan, A. Y. Melvil, G. V. Maltsev, M. Valtser as authors who dedicated their works to the study of the phenomenon of civil disobedience.

Paper main body. The notion of “civil disobedience” in its contemporary perspective has started to be used since 1849, when the principal of the American school Henry Thoreau as a sign of non-violent protest against the unjust laws ceased to pay taxes and, consequently, wrote his famous essay “On the duty of civil disobedience”. In world history, the concept of civil disobedience and different types of acts of civil protests appeared during the period of the evolvement of civil society. In the meantime only relatively recently mass protest movements began to be considered as rational and institutional source of social processes. Until 1960-ies mass protest movements had been studied in the sense of the paradigm of collective behavior, which was used to explain the mass totalitarian movements in the United States. Civic movement was considered as anti-social behavior of groups of people that emerged as a reaction to social tensions. The features of civil disobedience include:

– non-violent methods of fighting that should exclude the possibility of use of force by the opponents;

– disobedience regarding any particular law or government action, but within the compliance with legal order and commitment to the rule of law principle;

– civil disobedience acts can have a direct (failure to observe the law, which causes protests) or indirect (failure to observe other laws) nature;

– civil disobedience acts should have demonstrative, public nature with the explanation of their intentions;

– the key point of all disobedience acts is the desire of their participants to withstand any consequences of their actions as a sign of seriousness of their intentions;

– the practice of civil disobedience, which recognizes both active violation of law or public order and passive neglect of its requirements;

– the ground for civil disobedience is the belief that a particular law or action of government is immoral or unjust;

– civil disobedience acts can be arranged by a single person or by a group of the like-minded people, as well as by other community or union.

There are certain political circumstances, which make it possible for such form of political participation to exist. For example, John Rawls believes that civil disobedience is possible only within the social model, which is commonly called open society. Marek Nowicki believes that for the success of disobedience acts the main condition is to hold them in a state governed by the rule of law. Of course, the main feature of civil disobedience act remains the non-use of power in order to attain the goal. Also, in the current circumstances one of the signs (though optional) of civil disobedience acts is the large-scale involvement in such events. This corresponds to the essence of civil disobedience – public demonstration of the will of a number of citizens who do not agree with the will of the majority. Not always civil disobedience acts are purely of political nature. Quite a widespread practice is also the organization of disobedience acts in order to draw attention to a particular social issue or to the problems in local government politics. In the context of the given article we can not avoid the topic of the so-called “color revolutions”. Methods of civil disobedience are widely used by the organizers of such events in post-Soviet countries, and sometimes this led to the change of government in these countries.

Conclusions of the research. As a conclusion, one may assert that the topic of the concept of civil disobedience is quite potentially productive in terms of civil society development. Particularly essential become ways of interaction between government authorities and leaders of civil protest acts, the formation of a new approach to the conflict settlement during the civil protest acts, taking into the account the experience of Maidan movements. Thus, the comprehensive study of the aspects of this phenomenon is needed.

Key words: civil disobedience, civil protest, state management, the legal status, civil society, tolerance.

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